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Q11. - (Topic 2) 

What can cause two OSPF neighbors to be stuck in the EXSTART state? 

A. There is a low bandwidth connection between neighbors. 

B. The neighbors have different MTU settings. 

C. The OSPF interfaces are in a passive state. 

D. There is only layer one connectivity between neighbors. 



Neighbors Stuck in Exstart/Exchange State The problem occurs most frequently when attempting to run OSPF between a Cisco router and another vendor's router. The problem occurs when the maximum transmission unit (MTU) settings for neighboring router interfaces don't match. If the router with the higher MTU sends a packet larger that the MTU set on the neighboring router, the neighboring router ignores the packet.0 When this problem occurs, the output of the show ip ospf neighbor command displays output similar that shown below: router-6# show ip ospf neighbor 

Neighbor ID Pri State Dead Time Address Interface 1 EXCHANGE/ - 00:00:36 Serial2.7 router-6# router-7# show ip ospf neighbor 

Neighbor ID Pri State Dead Time Address Interface 1 EXSTART/ - 00:00:33 Serial0.6 


Q12. - (Topic 1) 

Refer to the exhibit 

Which switch provides the spanning-tree designated port role for the network segment that services the printers? 

A. Switch1 

B. Switch2 

C. Switch3 

D. Switch4 



First, the question asks what switch services the printers, so it can be Switch 3 or Switch 4 

which is connected directly to the Printers. 

Designated port is a port that is in the forwarding state. All ports of the root bridge are 

designated ports. 

Switch 3 and Switch 4 has same priority so it will see on lowest MAC address and here 

switch 3 has lowest MAC address. So switch 3 segment will play a Designated port role. 

By comparing the MAC address of Switch 3 and Switch 4 we found that the MAC of Switch 

3 is smaller. Therefore the interface connected to the Printers of Switch 3 will become 

designated interface and the interface of Switch 4 will be blocked. 

Q13. - (Topic 3) 

Which command allows you to verify the encapsulation type (CISCO or IETF) for a Frame Relay link? 

A. show frame-relay lmi 

B. show frame-relay map 

C. show frame-relay pvc 

D. show interfaces serial 


Explanation: map will show frame relay encapsulation (cisco or ietf) 

"show frame-relay map" will show frame relay encapsulation type (CISCO or IETF) 

Q14. - (Topic 3) 

Refer to the exhibit. 

What is the meaning of the term dynamic as displayed in the output of the show frame-relay map command shown? 

A. The Serial0/0 interface is passing traffic. 

B. The DLCI 100 was dynamically allocated by the router 

C. The Serial0/0 interface acquired the IP address of from a DHCP server 

D. The DLCI 100 will be dynamically changed as required to adapt to changes in the Frame Relay cloud 

E. The mapping between DLCI 100 and the end station IP address was learned through Inverse ARP 



The term dynamic indicates that the DLCI number and the remote router IP address are learned via the Inverse ARP process. 

Inverse ARP is a technique by which dynamic mappings are constructed in a network, allowing a device such as a router to locate the logical network address and associate it with a permanent virtual circuit (PVC). 

Q15. - (Topic 2) 

Refer to the exhibit. 

What address is a feasible successor? 





Answer: C Explanation: 

The feasible condition states: 

“To qualify as a feasible successor, a router must have an AD less than the FD of the current successor route”. 

In this case, we see shows an AD less than the current successor of 

Q16. - (Topic 1) 

Refer to the exhibit. 

Each of these four switches has been configured with a hostname, as well as being configured to run RSTP. No other configuration changes have been made. Which three of these show the correct RSTP port roles for the indicated switches and interfaces? (Choose three.) 

A. SwitchA, Fa0/2, designated 

B. SwitchA, Fa0/1, root 

C. SwitchB, Gi0/2, root 

D. SwitchB, Gi0/1, designated 

E. SwitchC, Fa0/2, root 

F. SwitchD, Gi0/2, root 

Answer: A,B,F 


The question says "no other configuration changes have been made" so we can 

understand these switches have the same bridge priority. SwitchC has lowest MAC 

address so, it will become root bridge and 2 of its ports (Fa0/1 & Fa0/2) will be designated 

ports (DP). Because SwitchC is the root bridge the 2 ports nearest SwitchC on SwitchA 

(Fa0/1) and SwitchD (Gi0/2) will be root ports (RP) -> B and F are correct. 

SwitchB must have a root port so which port will it choose? To answer this question we 

need to know about STP cost and port cost. 

In general, "cost" is calculated based on bandwidth of the link. The higher the bandwidth on 

a link, the lower the value of its cost. Below are the cost values you should memorize: 

Link speed Cost SwitchB will choose the interface with lower cost to the root bridge as the root port so we must calculate the cost on interface Gi0/1 & Gi0/2 of SwitchB to the root bridge. This can be calculated from the "cost to the root bridge" of each switch because a switch always advertises its cost to the root bridge in its BPDU. The receiving switch will add its local port cost value to the cost in the BPDU. SwitchC advertises its cost to the root bridge with a value of 0. Switch D adds 4 (the cost value of 1Gbps link) and advertises this value (4) to SwitchB. SwitchB adds another 4 and learns that it can reach SwitchC via Gi0/1 port with a total cost of 8. The same process happens for SwitchA and SwitchB learns that it can reach SwitchC via Gi0/2 with a total cost of 23 -> Switch B chooses Gi0/1 as its root port. Now our last task is to identify the port roles of the ports between SwitchA & SwitchB. It is rather easy as the MAC address of SwitchA is lower than that of SwitchB so Fa0/2 of SwitchA will be designated port while Gi0/2 of SwitchB will be alternative port. 

Q17. - (Topic 3) 

What are three reasons that an organization with multiple branch offices and roaming users might implement a Cisco VPN solution instead of point-to-point WAN links? (Choose three.) 

A. reduced cost 

B. better throughput 

C. broadband incompatibility 

D. increased security 

E. scalability 

F. reduced latency 

Answer: A,D,E 

Explanation: Cisco VPN solutions provide exceptional security through encryption and authentication technologies that protect data in transit from unauthorized access and attacks. A Cisco VPN helps you: Use highly secure communications, with access rights tailored to individual users Quickly add new sites or users, without significantly expanding your existing infrastructure Improve productivity by extending corporate networks, applications, and collaboration tools Reduce communications costs while increasing flexibility 

Q18. - (Topic 2) 

Refer to the exhibit. 

The network associate is configuring OSPF on the Core router. All the connections to the branches should be participating in OSPF. The link to the ISP should NOT participate in OSPF and should only be advertised as the default route. What set of commands will properly configure the Core router? 

A. Core(config-router)# default-information originate Core(config-router)# network area 0 Core(config-router)# exit Core(config)# ip route 

B. Core(config-router)# default-information originate Core(config-router)# network area 0 Core(config-router)# exit Core(config)# ip route 

C. Core(config-router)# default-information originate Core(config-router)# network area 0 Core(config-router)# exit Core(config)# ip route 

D. Core(config-router)# default-information originate Core(config-router)# network area 0 Core(config-router)# exit Core(config)# ip route 



There are two ways to inject a default route into a normal area.1. If the ASBR already has the default route in its routing table, you can advertise theexisting into the OSPF domain with the default-information originate router configuration command.2. If the ASBR doesn’t have a default route, you can add the keyword always to the default-information originate command (default-information originate always).This command will advertise a default route into the OSPF domain, regardless of whether it has a route to Another benefit of adding always keyword is that it can add stability to the internetwork. For example, if the ASBR is learning a default route from another routing domain such as RIP and this route is flapping, then without the always keyword, each time the route flaps, the ASBR will send a new Type 5 LSA into the OSPF domain causing some instability inside the OSPF domain. With the always keyword, the ASBR will advertise the default inside the OSPF domain always, In the example shown here, only choice C is correct as the wildcard mask correctly specifies the networks, which include all IP addresses in the range. In this question we were told that the ISP link should NOT be configured for OSPF, making choice A incorrect. ec9f0.shtml 

Q19. - (Topic 3) 

Refer to the exhibit. 

Which statement describes DLCI 17? 

A. DLCI 17 describes the ISDN circuit between R2 and R3. 

B. DLCI 17 describes a PVC on R2. It cannot be used on R3 or R1. 

C. DLCI 17 is the Layer 2 address used by R2 to describe a PVC to R3. 

D. DLCI 17 describes the dial-up circuit from R2 and R3 to the service provider. 



DLCI stands for Data Link Connection Identifier. DLCI values are used on Frame Relay interfaces to distinguish between different virtual circuits. DLCIs have local significance because, the identifier references the point between the local router and the local Frame Relay switch to which the DLCI is connected. 

Q20. - (Topic 2) 

Which type of EIGRP route entry describes a feasible successor? 

A. a backup route, stored in the routing table 

B. a primary route, stored in the routing table 

C. a backup route, stored in the topology table 

D. a primary route, stored in the topology table 



Feasible Successors A destination entry is moved from the topology table to the routing table when there is a feasible successor. All minimum cost paths to the destination form a set. From this set, the neighbors that have an advertised metric less than the current routing table metric are considered feasible successors. Feasible successors are viewed by a router as neighbors that are downstream with respect to the destination. These neighbors and the associated metrics are placed in the forwarding table. When a neighbor changes the metric it has been advertising or a topology change occurs in the network, the set of feasible successors may have to be re-evaluated. However, this is not categorized as a route recomputation. Feasible successor is a route whose Advertised Distance (AD) is less than the Feasible Distance (FD) of the current best path. A feasible successor is a backup route, which is not stored in the routing table but, stored in the topology table.