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Q41. - (Topic 2)
What are two drawbacks of implementing a link-state routing protocol? (Choose two.)
A. the sequencing and acknowledgment of link-state packets B. the requirement for a hierarchical IP addressing scheme for optimal functionality
C. the high volume of link-state advertisements in a converged network
D. the high demand on router resources to run the link-state routing algorithm
E. the large size of the topology table listing all advertised routes in the converged network
Link State routing protocols, such as OSPF and IS-IS, converge more quickly than their distance vector routing protocols such as RIPv1, RIPv2, EIGRP and so on, through the use of flooding and triggered updates. In link state protocols, changes are flooded immediately and computed in parallel. Triggered updates improve convergence time by requiring routers to send an update message immediately upon learning of a route change. These updates are triggered by some event, such as a new link becoming available oor an existing link failing. The main drawbacks to link state routing protocols are the amount of CPU overhead involved in calculating route changes and memory resources that are required to store neighbor tables, route tables and a complete topology table. http://www.ciscopress.com/articles/article.asp?p=24090&seqNum=4
Q42. - (Topic 1)
Refer to the exhibit.
Given the output shown from this Cisco Catalyst 2950, what is the reason that interface FastEthernet 0/10 is not the root port for VLAN 2?
A. This switch has more than one interface connected to the root network segment in VLAN 2.
B. This switch is running RSTP while the elected designated switch is running 802.1d Spanning Tree.
C. This switch interface has a higher path cost to the root bridge than another in the topology.
D. This switch has a lower bridge ID for VLAN 2 than the elected designated switch.
Explanation: These four parameters are examined in order to make root bridge , root port , designated port. Other switch has lowest Sending Bridge ID or Sending Port ID so vlan 2 is not the root port.
1. A lower Root Bridge ID2. A lower path cost to the Root3. A lower Sending Bridge ID4. A lower Sending Port ID
Q43. - (Topic 2)
What are two benefits of using a single OSPF area network design? (Choose two.)
A. It is less CPU intensive for routers in the single area.
B. It reduces the types of LSAs that are generated.
C. It removes the need for virtual links.
D. It increases LSA response times.
E. It reduces the number of required OSPF neighbor adjacencies.
OSPF uses a LSDB (link state database) and fills this with LSAs (link state advertisement). The link types are as follows:
LSA Type 1:. Router LSA
LSA Type 2:.. . . . . . . . Network LSA
LSA Type 3:. Summary LSA
LSA Type 4:. Summary ASBR LSA
LSA Type 5:. Autonomous system external LSA
LSA Type 6:. Multicast OSPF LSA
LSA Type 7:. Not-so-stubby area LSA
LSA Type 8:. External attribute LSA for BGP
If all routers are in the same area, then many of these LSA types (Summary ASBR LSA, external LSA, etc) will not be used and will not be generated by any router.
All areas in an Open Shortest Path First (OSPF) autonomous system must be physically connected to the backbone area (Area 0). In some cases, where this is not possible, you can use a virtual link to connect to the backbone through a non-backbone area. You can also use virtual links to connect two parts of a partitioned backbone through a non-backbone area. The area through which you configure the virtual link, known as a transit area, must have full routing information. The transit area cannot be a stub area. Virtual links are not ideal and should really only be used for temporary network solutions or migrations. However, if all locations are in a single OSPF area this is not needed.
Q44. - (Topic 3)
What command is used to verify the DLCI destination address in a Frame Relay static configuration?
A. show frame-relay pvc
B. show frame-relay lmi
C. show frame-relay map
D. show frame relay end-to-end
Cisco Frame Relay Configurations http://www.ciscopress.com/articles/article.asp?p=170741&seqNum=9 show frame-relay map The show frame-relay map privileged EXEC mode command shows the contents of the next hop protocol address to DLCI mapping table on the router. The table contains both dynamic mapped and static mapped entries. The below example shows a sample output of the show frame-relay map command. Router#show frame-relay map Serial1/2 (up): ip 172.16.1.4 dlci 401(0x191,0x6410), dynamic, broadcast,, status defined, active Serial1/2 (up): ip 172.16.1.5 dlci 501(0x1F5,0x7C50), dynamic, broadcast,, status defined, active Serial1/2 (up): ip 172.16.1.2 dlci 301(0x12D,0x48D0), dynamic, broadcast,, status defined, active
Q45. - (Topic 3)
Which encapsulation type is a Frame Relay encapsulation type that is supported by Cisco routers?
B. ANSI Annex D
C. Q9333-A Annex A
Explanation: Cisco supports two Frame Relay encapsulation types: the Cisco encapsulation and the IETF Frame Relay encapsulation, which is in conformance with RFC 1490 and RFC 2427. The former is often used to connect two Cisco routers while the latter is used to connect a Cisco router to a non-Cisco router. You can test with your Cisco router when typing the command Router(config-if)#encapsulation frame-relay ? on a WAN link. Note: Three LMI options are supported by Cisco routers are ansi, Cisco, and Q933a. They represent the ANSI Annex D, Cisco, and ITU Q933-A (Annex A) LMI types, respectively. HDLC is a WAN protocol same as Frame-Relay and PPP so it is not a Frame Relay encapsulation type.
Q46. - (Topic 2)
Which statement describes the process ID that is used to run OSPF on a router?
A. It is globally significant and is used to represent the AS number.
B. It is locally significant and is used to identify an instance of the OSPF database.
C. It is globally significant and is used to identify OSPF stub areas.
D. It is locally significant and must be the same throughout an area.
Explanation: The Process ID for OSPF on a router is only locally significant and you can use the same number on each router, or each router can have a different number-it just doesn't matter. The numbers you can use are from 1 to 65,535. Don't get this confused with area numbers, which can be from 0 to 4.2 billion.
Q47. - (Topic 2)
Which parameter or parameters are used to calculate OSPF cost in Cisco routers?
B. Bandwidth and Delay
C. Bandwidth, Delay, and MTU
D. Bandwidth, MTU, Reliability, Delay, and Load
The cost (also called metric) of an interface in OSPF is an indication of the overhead required to send packets across a certain interface. The cost of an interface is inversely proportional to the bandwidth of that interface. A higher bandwidth indicates a lower cost. There is more overhead (higher cost) and time delays involved in crossing a 56k serial line than crossing a 10M Ethernet line. The formula used to calculate the cost is: Cost= 10000 0000/bandwidth in bps
For example, it will cost 10 EXP8/10 EXP7 = 10 to cross a 10M Ethernet line and will cost 10 EXP8/1544000 =64 to cross a T1 line. By default, the cost of an interface is calculated based on the bandwidth; you can force the cost of an interface with the ip ospf cost <value> interface sub configuration mode command.
Q48. - (Topic 2)
Refer to the exhibit.
A packet with a source IP address of 192.168.2.4 and a destination IP address of 10.1.1.4 arrives at the AcmeB router. What action does the router take?
A. forwards the received packet out the Serial0/0 interface
B. forwards a packet containing an EIGRP advertisement out the Serial0/1 interface
C. forwards a packet containing an ICMP message out the FastEthemet0/0 interface
D. forwards a packet containing an ARP request out the FastEthemet0/1 interface
Answer: C Explanation:
CCNA - EIGRP Common Question http://www.orbitco-ccna-pastquestions.com/CCNA---EIGRP-Common-Question.php
Looking at the output above, there is no IP route for 10.1.1.4 address on AcmeB routing table. If the router can no find a specific path in its routing table to a particular route,( In this case no path is found so AcmeB) the router will inform the source host with an ICMP message that the destination is unreachable and this will be through the same interface it has received the packet (interface Fa0/0 network 192.168.3.0/28 from the exhibit).
Topic 3, WAN Technologies
Q49. - (Topic 2)
Which parameter would you tune to affect the selection of a static route as a backup, when a dynamic protocol is also being used?
A. hop count
B. administrative distance
C. link bandwidth
D. link delay
E. link cost
What Is Administrative Distance?
Administrative distance is the feature that routers use in order to select the best path. Administrative distance defines the reliability of a routing protocol. Each routing protocol is prioritized in order of most to least reliable (believable) with the help of an administrative distance value. Lowest Administrative distance will be chosen first.
Q50. - (Topic 2)
What are two enhancements that OSPFv3 supports over OSPFv2? (Choose two.)
A. It requires the use of ARP.
B. It can support multiple IPv6 subnets on a single link.
C. It supports up to 2 instances of OSPFv3 over a common link.
D. It routes over links rather than over networks.
Answer: B,D Explanation:
Here is a list of the differences between OSPFv2 and OSPFv3:
They use different address families (OSPFv2 is for IPv4-only, OSPFv3 can be used for IPv6-only or both protocols OSPFv3 introduces new LSA types OSPFv3 has different packet format OSPFv3 uses different flooding scope bits (U/S2/S1) OSPFv3 adjacencies are formed over link-local IPv6 communications OSPFv3 runs per-link rather than per-subnet OSPFv3 supports multiple instances on a single link, Interfaces can have multiple IPv6 addresses OSPFv3 uses multicast addresses FF02::5 (all OSPF routers), FF02::6 (all OSPF DRs) OSPFv3 Neighbor Authentication done with IPsec (AH) OSPFv2 Router ID (RID) must be manually configured, still a 32-bit number