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Q21. In your production database, data manipulation language (DML) operations are executed on the SALES table. 

You have noticed some dubious values in the SALES table during the last few days. You are able to track users, actions taken, and the time of the action for this particular period but the changes in data are not tracked. You decide to keep track of both the old data and new data in the table long with the user information. 

What action would you take to achieve this task? 

A. Apply fine-grained auditing. 

B. Implement value-based auditing. 

C. Impose standard database auditing to audit object privileges. 

D. Impose standard database auditing to audit SQL statements. 

Answer:


Q22. You upgraded from a previous Oracle database version to Oracle Database version to Oracle Database 12c. Your database supports a mixed workload. During the day, lots of insert, update, and delete operations are performed. At night, Extract, Transform, Load (ETL) and batch reporting jobs are run. The ETL jobs perform certain database operations using two or more concurrent sessions. 

After the upgrade, you notice that the performance of ETL jobs has degraded. To ascertain the cause of performance degradation, you want to collect basic statistics such as the level of parallelism, total database time, and the number of I/O requests for the ETL jobs. 

How do you accomplish this? 

A. Examine the Active Session History (ASH) reports for the time period of the ETL or batch reporting runs. 

B. Enable SQL tracing for the queries in the ETL and batch reporting queries and gather diagnostic data from the trace file. 

C. Enable real-time SQL monitoring for ETL jobs and gather diagnostic data from the V$SQL_MONITOR view. 

D. Enable real-time database operation monitoring using the DBMS_SQL_MONITOR.BEGIN_OPERATION function, and then use the DBMS_SQL_MONITOR.REPORT_SQL_MONITOR function to view the required information. 

Answer:

Explanation: * Monitoring database operations Real-Time Database Operations Monitoring enables you to monitor long running database tasks such as batch jobs, scheduler jobs, and Extraction, Transformation, and Loading (ETL) jobs as a composite business operation. This feature tracks the progress of SQL and PL/SQL queries associated with the business operation being monitored. As a DBA or developer, you can define business operations for monitoring by explicitly specifying the start and end of the operation or implicitly with tags that identify the operation. 


Q23. Examine the resources consumed by a database instance whose current Resource Manager plan is displayed. 

SQL> SELECT name, active_sessions, queue_length, Consumed_cpu_time, cpu_waits, cpu_wait_time 

FROM v$rsrc_consumer_group; 

NAMEACTIVE_SESSIONS QUEUE_LENGTH CONSUMED_CPU_WAITS 

CPU_WAIT_TIME 

OLTP__ORDER__ENTRY1029690 467 

OTHES__GROUPS 0 059823664089 

60425 

SYS_GROUP 1 02420704 914 

19540 

DS.S_QUERIES4245946603004 

55700 

Which two statements are true? 

A. An attempt to start a new session by a user belonging to DSS_QUERIES fails with an error. 

B. An attempt to start a new session by a user belonging to OTHE_GROUPS fails with an error. 

C. The CPU_WAIT_TIME column indicates the total time that sessions in the consumer group waited for the CPU due to resource management. 

D. The CPU_WAIT_TIME column indicates the total time that sessions in the consumer group waited for the CPU due to I/O waits and latch or enqueue contention. 

E. A user belonging to the DSS__QUERIES resource consumer group can create a new session but the session will be queued. 

Answer: C,E 


Q24. Examine the current value for the following parameters in your database instance: 

SGA_MAX_SIZE = 1024M 

SGA_TARGET = 700M 

DB_8K_CACHE_SIZE = 124M 

LOG_BUFFER = 200M 

You issue the following command to increase the value of DB_8K_CACHE_SIZE: 

SQL> ALTER SYSTEM SET DB_8K_CACHE_SIZE=140M; 

Which statement is true? 

A. It fails because the DB_8K_CACHE_SIZE parameter cannot be changed dynamically. 

B. It succeeds only if memory is available from the autotuned components if SGA. 

C. It fails because an increase in DB_8K_CACHE_SIZE cannot be accommodated within SGA_TARGET. 

D. It fails because an increase in DB_8K_CACHE_SIZE cannot be accommodated within SGA_MAX_SIZE. 

Answer:

Explanation: * The SGA_TARGET parameter can be dynamically increased up to the value specified for the SGA_MAX_SIZE parameter, and it can also be reduced. 

* Example: 

For example, suppose you have an environment with the following configuration: 

SGA_MAX_SIZE = 1024M SGA_TARGET = 512M DB_8K_CACHE_SIZE = 128M In this example, the value of SGA_TARGET can be resized up to 1024M and can also be reduced until one or more of the automatically sized components reaches its minimum size. The exact value depends on environmental factors such as the number of CPUs on the system. However, the value of DB_8K_CACHE_SIZE remains fixed at all times at 128M 

* DB_8K_CACHE_SIZE Size of cache for 8K buffers 

* For example, consider this configuration: 

SGA_TARGET = 512M DB_8K_CACHE_SIZE = 128M In this example, increasing DB_8K_CACHE_SIZE by 16 M to 144M means that the 16M is taken away from the automatically sized components. Likewise, reducing DB_8K_CACHE_SIZE by 16M to 112M means that the 16M is given to the automatically sized components. 


Q25. Examine this command: 

SQL > exec DBMS_STATS.SET_TABLE_PREFS (‘SH’, ‘CUSTOMERS’, ‘PUBLISH’, ‘false’); 

Which three statements are true about the effect of this command? 

A. Statistics collection is not done for the CUSTOMERS table when schema stats are gathered. 

B. Statistics collection is not done for the CUSTOMERS table when database stats are gathered. 

C. Any existing statistics for the CUSTOMERS table are still available to the optimizer at parse time. 

D. Statistics gathered on the CUSTOMERS table when schema stats are gathered are stored as pending statistics. 

E. Statistics gathered on the CUSTOMERS table when database stats are gathered are stored as pending statistics. 

Answer: C,D,E 

Explanation: * SET_TABLE_PREFS Procedure 

This procedure is used to set the statistics preferences of the specified table in the specified schema. 

* Example: Using Pending Statistics Assume many modifications have been made to the employees table since the last time statistics were gathered. To ensure that the cost-based optimizer is still picking the best plan, statistics should be gathered once again; however, the user is concerned that new statistics will cause the optimizer to choose bad plans when the current ones are acceptable. The user can do the following: 

EXEC DBMS_STATS.SET_TABLE_PREFS('hr', 'employees', 'PUBLISH', 'false'); 

By setting the employees tables publish preference to FALSE, any statistics gather from now on will not be automatically published. The newly gathered statistics will be marked as pending. 


Q26. Examine the following commands for redefining a table with Virtual Private Database (VPD) policies: 

Which two statements are true about redefining the table? 

A. All the triggers for the table are disabled without changing any of the column names or column types in the table. 

B. The primary key constraint on the EMPLOYEES table is disabled during redefinition. 

C. VPD policies are copied from the original table to the new table during online redefinition. 

D. You must copy the VPD policies manually from the original table to the new table during online redefinition. 

Answer: B,C 

Explanation: C (not D): CONS_VPD_AUTO Used to indicate to copy VPD policies automatically 

* DBMS_RLS.ADD_POLICY / The DBMS_RLS package contains the fine-grained access control administrative interface, which is used to implement Virtual Private Database (VPD).DBMS_RLS is available with the Enterprise Edition only. 

Note: 

* CONS_USE_PK and CONS_USE_ROWID are constants used as input to the "options_flag" parameter in both the START_REDEF_TABLE Procedure and CAN_REDEF_TABLE Procedure. CONS_USE_ROWID is used to indicate that the 

redefinition should be done using rowids while CONS_USE_PK implies that the redefinition should be done using primary keys or pseudo-primary keys (which are unique keys with all component columns having NOT NULL constraints). 

* DBMS_REDEFINITION.START_REDEF_TABLE To achieve online redefinition, incrementally maintainable local materialized views are used. These logs keep track of the changes to the master tables and are used by the materialized views during refresh synchronization. 

* START_REDEF_TABLE Procedure Prior to calling this procedure, you must manually create an empty interim table (in the same schema as the table to be redefined) with the desired attributes of the post-redefinition table, and then call this procedure to initiate the redefinition. 


Q27. Which two are true concerning a multitenant container database with three pluggable database? 

A. All administration tasks must be done to a specific pluggable database. 

B. The pluggable databases increase patching time. 

C. The pluggable databases reduce administration effort. 

D. The pluggable databases are patched together. 

E. Pluggable databases are only used for database consolidation. 

Answer: C,E 

Explanation: The benefits of Oracle Multitenant are brought by implementing a pure deployment choice. The following list calls out the most compelling examples. 

* High consolidation density. (E) The many pluggable databases in a single multitenant container database share its memory and background processes, letting you operate many more pluggable databases on a particular platform than you can single databases that use the old architecture. This is the same benefit that schema-based consolidation brings. 

* Rapid provisioning and cloning using SQL. 

* New paradigms for rapid patching and upgrades. (D, not B) The investment of time and effort to patch one multitenant container database results in patching all of its many pluggable databases. To patch a single pluggable database, you simply unplug/plug to a multitenant container database at a different Oracle Database software version. 

* (C, not A) Manage many databases as one. By consolidating existing databases as pluggable databases, administrators can manage many databases as one. For example, tasks like backup and disaster recovery are performed at the multitenant container database level. 

* Dynamic between pluggable database resource management. In Oracle Database 12c, Resource Manager is extended with specific functionality to control the competition for resources between the pluggable databases within a multitenant container database. Note: 

* Oracle Multitenant is a new option for Oracle Database 12c Enterprise Edition that helps customers reduce IT costs by simplifying consolidation, provisioning, upgrades, and more. It is supported by a new architecture that allows a multitenant container database to hold many pluggable databases. And it fully complements other options, including Oracle Real Application Clusters and Oracle Active Data Guard. An existing database can be simply adopted, with no change, as a pluggable database; and no changes are needed in the other tiers of the application. 

Reference: 12c Oracle Multitenant 


Q28. Your are the DBA supporting an Oracle 11g Release 2 database and wish to move a table containing several DATE, CHAR, VARCHAR2, and NUMBER data types, and the table’s indexes, to another tablespace. 

The table does not have a primary key and is used by an OLTP application. 

Which technique will move the table and indexes while maintaining the highest level of availability to the application? 

A. Oracle Data Pump. 

B. An ALTER TABLE MOVE to move the table and ALTER INDEX REBUILD to move the indexes. 

C. An ALTER TABLE MOVE to move the table and ALTER INDEX REBUILD ONLINE to move the indexes. 

D. Online Table Redefinition. 

E. Edition-Based Table Redefinition. 

Answer:

Explanation: * Oracle Database provides a mechanism to make table structure modifications without significantly affecting the availability of the table. The mechanism is called online table redefinition. Redefining tables online provides a substantial increase in availability compared to traditional methods of redefining tables. 

* To redefine a table online: 

Choose the redefinition method: by key or by rowid 

* By key—Select a primary key or pseudo-primary key to use for the redefinition. Pseudo-primary keys are unique keys with all component columns having NOT NULL constraints. For this method, the versions of the tables before and after redefinition should have the same primary key columns. This is the preferred and default method of redefinition. 

* By rowid—Use this method if no key is available. In this method, a hidden column named M_ROW$$ is added to the post-redefined version of the table. It is recommended that this column be dropped or marked as unused after the redefinition is complete. If COMPATIBLE is set to 10.2.0 or higher, the final phase of redefinition automatically sets this column unused. You can then use the ALTER TABLE ... DROP UNUSED COLUMNS statement to drop it. 

You cannot use this method on index-organized tables. 

Note: 

* When you rebuild an index, you use an existing index as the data source. Creating an index in this manner enables you to change storage characteristics or move to a new tablespace. Rebuilding an index based on an existing data source removes intra-block fragmentation. Compared to dropping the index and using the CREATE INDEX statement, re-creating an existing index offers better performance. 

Incorrect: 

Not E: Edition-based redefinition enables you to upgrade the database component of an application while it is in use, thereby minimizing or eliminating down time. 


Q29. Which three statements are true about Flashback Database? 

A. Flashback logs are written sequentially, and are archived. 

B. Flashback Database uses a restored control file to recover a database. 

C. The Oracle database automatically creates, deletes, and resides flashback logs in the Fast Recovery Area. 

D. Flashback Database can recover a database to the state that it was in before a reset logs operation. 

E. Flashback Database can recover a data file that was dropped during the span of time of the flashback. 

F. Flashback logs are used to restore to the blocks' before images, and then the redo data may be used to roll forward to the desired flashback time. 

Answer: B,C,F 

Explanation: * Flashback Database uses its own logging mechanism, creating flashback logs and storing them in the fast recovery area (C). You can only use Flashback Database if flashback logs are available. To take advantage of this feature, you must set up your database in advance to create flashback logs. 

* To enable Flashback Database, you configure a fast recovery area and set a flashback retention target. This retention target specifies how far back you can rewind a database with Flashback Database. 

From that time onwards, at regular intervals, the database copies images of each altered block in every data file into the flashback logs. These block images can later be reused to reconstruct the data file contents for any moment at which logs were captured. (F) 

Incorrect: Not E: You cannot use Flashback Database alone to retrieve a dropped data file. If you flash back a database to a time when a dropped data file existed in the database, only the data file entry is added to the control file. You can only recover the dropped data file by using RMAN to fully restore and recover the data file. 

Reference: Oracle Database Backup and Recovery User's Guide 12c R 


Q30. Examine the following command; 

ALTER SYSTEM SET enable_ddl_logging = TRUE; 

Which statement is true? 

A. Only the data definition language (DDL) commands that resulted in errors are logged in the alert log file. 

B. All DDL commands are logged in the alert log file. 

C. All DDL commands are logged in a different log file that contains DDL statements and their execution dates. 

D. Only DDL commands that resulted in the creation of new segments are logged. 

E. All DDL commands are logged in XML format in the alert directory under the Automatic Diagnostic Repository (ADR) home. 

Answer:

Explanation: Once DDL logging is turned on, every DDL command will be logged in the alert log file and also the log.xml file. 

Note: 

* By default Oracle database does not log any DDL operations performed by any user. The default settings for auditing only logs DML operations. 

* Oracle 12c DDL Logging – ENABLE_DDL_LOGGING 

The first method is by using the enabling a DDL logging feature built into the database. By default it is turned off and you can turn it on by setting the value of ENABLE_DDL_LOGGING initialization parameter to true. 

* We can turn it on using the following command. The parameter is dynamic and you can 

turn it on/off on the go. 

SQL> alter system set ENABLE_DDL_LOGGING=true; 

System altered. Elapsed: 00:00:00.05 SQL> 

Once it is turned on, every DDL command will be logged in the alert log file and also the log.xml file.